On the anterior view, the following components of the skull are prominent:
- Frontal bone
- Orbit and its margins
- Nasal bones
- Zygomatic bone
Frontal bone forms the forehead, thus called the bone of the forehead. It curves downwards and ends by making the upper margins of the orbits. Medially, it articulates with the frontal processes of the maxillae and the nasal bones. Laterally, it articulates with the zygomatic bone. Superciliary arches and the supraorbital notches or foramina are the prominent features of the anterior view of frontal bone.
Frontal bone also contains the frontal air sinuses: the hollow spaces lined with mucous membrane. These spaces communicate with the nose and serve as voice resonators.
Orbit and its margins:
Orbit is the bony cavity containing the eyeball. Its margins are formed in the following way:
- Frontal bone (superiorly)
- Zygomatic bone (laterally)
- Maxilla (inferiorly)
- Processes of maxilla and frontal bone (medially)
The two nasal bones form the bridge of the nose. Their lower borders (with the maxillae) form the anterior nasal aperture.
The two maxillae form the following:
- The upper jaw
- The anterior part of the hard palate
- Part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavities
- Part of the floors of the orbital cavities
The two bones meet in the midline at the intermaxillary suture. Here they form the lower margin of the nasal aperture.
Below the orbit, there is an infraorbital foramen in each maxilla. The alveolar process of each maxilla projects downward and together with the fellow of the opposite side, it forms the alveolar arch that carries the upper teeth.
Within each maxilla there is a large pyramid shaped cavity called the maxillary sinus. It is lined with mucous membrane and is connected with the nasal cavity. It serves as a voice resonator.
It forms the prominence of the cheek and part of the lateral wall and floor of the orbital cavity. On the medial side it articulates with the maxilla and on the lateral side with the zygomatic process of temporal bone (forming the zygomatic arch).
The zygomatic bone contains two foramina for the zygomaticofacial and zygomaticotemporal nerves.
Mandible, commonly called the lower jaw, consists of a horizontal body and two vertical rami.