The two bones of leg, tibia and fibula are articulated with each other at two places. One is near the knee joint forming the superior tibiofibular joint. The other is near the ankle joint forming the inferior tibiofibular joint.
The superior tibiofibular joint is a synovial, plane, gliding joint.
Articular surfaces of superior tibiofibular joint:
The articulation is between the lateral condyle of tibia and the head of fibula. Both articular surfaces are flattened and covered by hyaline cartilage.
Capsule of superior tibiofibular joint:
The capsule of this joint surrounds it completely and is attached to the margins of the articular surfaces.
Ligaments of superior tibiofibular joint:
There are two important ligaments, designated as anterior ligament and posterior ligament, strengthening the capsule. The interosseous membrane, which connects the shafts of the tibia and fibula together, also adds greatly to the strength of this joint.
Synovial membrane of superior tibiofibular joint:
The synovial membrane of this joint lines the capsule and is attached to the margins of the articular surfaces. Sometimes, the synovial cavity may communicate with the popliteal bursa associated to the knee joint. Since the popliteal bursa communicates with the knee joint, the proximal tibiofibular joint may be indirectly in communication with the synovial cavity of knee joint.
Blood supply of superior tibiofibular joint:
This joint receives its blood supply from the inferior lateral genicular and anterior tibial recurrent arteries.
Nerve supply to superior tibiofibular joint:
Major part of the nerve supply comes from the common peroneal nerve, however, the nerve to popliteus muscle also give a few branches to this joint.
Movements of superior tibiofibular joint:
Only a small amount of gliding movement can take place during movements at the ankle. No other significant movement exists.