Blood Supply of the Gut

Arterial supply:

The gut receives its blood supply from three major arteries: celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery and inferior mesenteric artery.

The celiac artery is the blood source for the foregut. It supplies the portion of the alimentary canal from the lower one-third of esophagus down as far as the second part of duodenum. To study celiac artery in detail, visit: celiac artery

The superior mesenteric artery is the blood source of midgut. It supplies the portion of the alimentary canal from the middle of the second part of duodenum as far as the distal one-third of transverse colon. To study the superior mesenteric artery in detail, visit: superior mesenteric artery

The inferior mesenteric artery is the blood source of hindgut. It supplies the large intestine from distal one-third of transverse colon to halfway down the anal canal. To study inferior mesenteric artery in detail, visit: inferior mesenteric artery

In addition to the above arteries, there is another important artery known as the marginal artery of colon. It serves as a communication between the superior and inferior mesenteric vessels and is thus very important clinically. To study the marginal artery in detail, visit: marginal artery of colon

Venous drainage:

Major portion of the venous drainage from the gastrointestinal tract and its accessory organs is into the liver through the portal venous system.

The proximal veins, which lie near the hepatic portal vein drain directly into it. However, veins forming the distal tributaries correspond to the branches of the celiac, superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric arteries.